Call to Order and Roll Call
Thesecond meeting of the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Interim Joint Committee on Education was held on Monday, August 13, 2012, at 10:00 AM, in Room 131 of the Capitol Annex. Representative Reginald Meeks, Co-Chair, called the meeting to order, and the secretary called the roll.
Approval of Minutes from June 11, 2012 Meeting
Minutes were not approved due to lack of a quorum.
College Readiness and Postsecondary Education in Kentucky
Mr. Robert King, President, Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education (CPE), said in 2011, 11 out of 20 high school graduates tested ready in English, 9 out of 20 tested ready in mathematics, 10 out of 20 tested ready for reading, and only 4 out of 20 tested ready in science. He said the number of full-time associate and baccalaureate students who entered a Kentucky public or independent university college ready completed a degree at double the rate of those who entered not college ready.
President King said that Senate Bill 1, enacted by the Kentucky General Assembly in 2009, was a landmark piece of legislation. Responding to a question from Representative Meeks regarding Senate Bill 1 partnerships, President King agreed that parents and employers are important partners and the graph in the PowerPoint presentation will be modified to include them. He noted support systems in local communities, such as churches, play vital roles in meeting the goals of Senate Bill 1.
President King said the goals of Senate Bill 1 were to reduce college remediation of recent high school graduates by at least 50 percent and to increase college completion rates of developmental students by three percent annually. Senate Bill 1 calls for new standards, that are fewer, but more in-depth. The new standards should be internationally competitive and aligned with postsecondary standards.
President King said Senate Bill 1 required the creation of a unified strategy for college and career readiness. He introduced Sue Cain and John DeAtley, CPE, whom he credited with the success of aligning higher education with the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) and the Education Professional Standards Board (EPSB). The strategy outlines accelerated learning opportunities, secondary intervention programs, college and career readiness advising, and postsecondary college persistence and degree completion.
Responding to Representative Meeks question regarding students taking the ACT test earlier in high school, President King said the Kentucky General Assembly passed legislation that has students taking a series of three examinations, all of which are produced by ACT. These tests are administered to students in the eighth, tenth, and eleventh grades and are aligned with the new common core standards.
President King said the Kentucky Online Testing Program (KYOTE) is a principal component of a large, statewide college readiness consortial effort focused on achieving the Senate Bill 1 goal. The consortium is working toward statewide extension of the college readiness program. Teams of college and school faculty develop “mathematics transition courses” for secondary seniors whose ACT scores are below Kentucky’s minimum entry for college-credit mathematics courses. The KYOTE exams are administered securely by the school. Participating teachers and administrators receive complete data immediately for use in further developing the transition course and in revising the earlier curriculum. He said placement in college-credit courses is guaranteed to students scoring well. Preliminary 2008-2009 math data indicate placement rates for at-risk students in college-credit courses at or above Senate Bill 1 goal levels of 50 percent reduction in remediations. If successful, the project will expand the range of mathematics instruments and implement KYOTE English, reading, and writing testing programs.
Representative Meeks said he is more interested in knowing the student progress between the eighth and tenth grade exam. Ms. Cain said middle school transitional courses were developed for reading, writing, and mathematics this past year for students who did not meet targets for readiness on the Explore test in eighth grade. She noted if students can get on target by the ninth grade, they are more likely to stay on target through graduation.
President King said the college readiness strategic agenda consists of three policy objectives. The first objective is to increase the number of college-ready Kentuckians entering postsecondary education. The second objective is to increase the number of college-ready GED graduates. He noted Kentucky is one of the first states to align its GED program with the common core standards. The final objective is to increase the effectiveness of Kentucky’s K-12 teachers and school leaders.
President King said the “Commonwealth Commitment” was signed by college and university presidents, the KDE commissioner, the CPE President, and legislators. It is a pledge to work collaboratively to improve student transitions and implement the unified strategy.
President King said in addition to developing new
assessments, the Senate Bill 1 steering committee was comprised of legislative
leadership, CPE, KDE, EPSB, and the Governor’s office. This committee kept the
legislators apprised of progress and demonstrated financial needs to fund necessary
professional development. He noted
the General Assembly appropriated $6 million, plus $1.5 million in recurring funds.
Responding to Representative Meeks question regarding students who require remediation classes in college, Dr. Cain said the college faculty who interact with the students on a day-to-day basis are the ones who are developing the transition courses to bridge the gap between high school and college readiness. The faculty knows specifically what information the students are lacking and can appropriately address the deficiencies in the transition courses.
President King said most students who are testing below readiness showed signs of trouble in elementary school. He said the two national testing consortia are developing new assessments aligned with the common core standards for grades three through eight. He said it is CPE’s responsibility to train teachers how to use the assessments effectively in order to identify struggling students and conduct an immediate intervention.
President King said the public needs to be educated about Senate Bill 1 and the need for more rigorous standards. He mentioned partnering with the Prichard Committee of Academic Excellence and local and national foundations to develop informational materials. There is also support from the Gates Foundation to hold a series of informational sessions presented by KDE Commissioner Holliday and the State Chamber of Commerce.
President King said Kentucky is the envy of other states with the implementation of Senate Bill 1. He hopes Kentucky can be a model for the nation and shared some valuable lessons learned over the past two years. He noted involving higher education as early as possible when adopting new standards was critical to gain buy-in and ownership. He said K-12’s success is critical to higher education’s success. P-20 collaboration is critical and must extend deep into each sector. Finally, he added that assessment of reading drives placement decisions for students, not admissions.
Dr. King said there are related benefits to the enactment of Senate Bill 1. It has standardized general education outcomes and enhanced transfer opportunities across the system. He said there is agreement on common placement exams and common learning outcomes for college readiness. It has also changed educator preparation and redesigned the master’s degree for teacher and principal programs.
President King said professional development will be improved to emphasize academic leadership for school leaders. Kentucky colleges and universities will be involved in the design and provision of research-proven, high-quality, effective professional development. He discussed the next steps in teacher preparation and the complete list is located in the meeting materials located in the Legislative Research Commission (LRC) library.
President King concluded that Kentucky is rethinking and redesigning the delivery of developmental education to be more conducive to student needs. This includes incorporating the emporium model, providing learn on demand programs, offering supplemental coursework, and implementing bridge programming.
Responding to Representative Rollins question regarding the ACT science benchmarks for non Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, Dr. Cain said scores show students who are successful in college biology have an average ACT score of 22.
Responding to Representative Rollins question, Dr. Cain said all Kentucky public universities have supplemental coursework, including the Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS). She said teachers need to do a better job of identifying which students need the full course, and which just need certain modules, or component parts, based on a diagnostic assessment.
Responding to Representative Rollins question about the survey of the difference in teacher professional development needs versus what is offered, President King said the TELL survey data is not broken down by college or university. However, CPE has completed a rough analysis with the new P-20 data warehouse. He said a model is being developed to identify public high schools that have at least 50 percent of its teacher core graduating from the same university and analyze how their students are performing on the ACT exams.
President King said CPE is trying to match up schools with common demographics by using the free and reduced lunch indicator as a measure. If two schools are relatively matched demographically, but one school is out performing the other in terms of student performance, this could indicate the need for the school with the high performing students to give some training to the other school. He noted the eventual goal is to track Kentucky graduates into their teaching profession and see how their students are performing.
Representative Rollins said 75 percent of teachers indicated a need for additional professional development in differentiating instruction. He said it may be useful to compare where new teachers attended college and what was covered in their undergraduate education to address these areas of need. President King said the new P-20 data warehouse should be able to track the information in the future.
Low-Income and Minority Participation at Kentucky Medical Schools
University of Louisville School of Medicine
David L. Wiegman, Ph.D., Associate Vice President for Health Affairs, Vice Dean for Academic Affairs, Professor of Psychology, University of Louisville (UofL) said he established the Office of Minority and Rural Affairs in 1984. He said the University School of Medicine continually strives to ensure diversity and equal opportunity. The School of Medicine has placed a major emphasis on increasing the number of students from racial and ethnic groups designated as underrepresented in medicine and from rural counties designated as Health Professions Shortage Areas who apply to medical school, matriculate, and ultimately become practicing physicians.
Dr. Veronnie Faye Jones, Pediatrics Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, Office of Minority and Rural Affairs, Kentucky Area Health Education Center Program Director, UofL, discussed the various entrance programs that create a pipeline of students into the medical school and eventually into practice. She said the primary program is the Kentucky Area Health Education Center (AHEC), which is a collaborative effort of the UofL Health Sciences Center, the University of Kentucky (UK) Medical Center and eight regional centers. The AHECs work to improve recruitment, distribution, and retention of health care professionals (particularly in primary care) in medically underserved areas throughout the commonwealth. The AHEC program was created in 1992 and is offered in a four-week course during the summer. She noted approximately 70,000 students enrolled in an AHEC program in 2011.
Dr. Jones said the Professional Education Preparation Program (PEPP) Pre-College Summer Workshop is a residential academic enrichment and career exploration summer program for graduating high school seniors interested in medicine or dentistry. The program equips young scholars to transition into college and helps them plan for competitive medical or dental school applications. The PEPP has been in existence since 1981.
Dr. Jones said the Multicultural Association of Premedical Students (MAPS) is an academic support group that motivates, encourages, and prepares premedical students (undergraduates, post-baccalaureate or graduate students) for applying to medical school. Students from minority groups or underserved areas are provided mentors, shadowing opportunities, community service involvement, premedical resource materials, and additional academic guidance to enhance them as they become competitive medical school applicants. She noted the ultimate goal of MAPS is to increase the number of competitive medical school applicants and to diversify medical school enrollment and the health professional workforce.
Dr. Jones said the Summer Medical and Dental Education program (SMDEP) offers daily opportunities for rural, minority, and disadvantaged undergraduates to experience the way in which math and science are integrated into medical and dental school studies and careers. It is a six-week summer residential program and offers participants three hours of academic credit along with free housing, meals, a stipend, and limited partial travel assistance.
Dr. Jones said students, after completion of two years of college, may participate in a summer residential program to assist them in preparation for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). She said weekly supervised practice test sessions are conducted.
Dr. Jones said the new Post Baccalaureate Program is designed for those changing careers and college graduates with minimal pre-med science (biology, chemistry, and physics) who are preparing for medical school. She said the program serves as a navigation system for its students and provides a support system to guide them throughout entire pre-medical process.
Dr. Jones said since 1987, the Medical Education Development (MED) program has provided a special year for promising applicants who do not gain acceptance through the regular process. MED program participants are selected from the pool of regular applicants and are invited to take selected courses from the first year medical school curriculum, as well as three graduate level courses. Upon passing each course satisfactorily, MED Program participants are recommended for admission to the upcoming freshman medical school class to take the remainder of the first year medical curriculum. MED program participants are assisted regularly by staff and are required to participate in the Prematriculation Program. She noted 90 percent of students who participate in the MED program are successful in completing medical school.
Dr. Jones said in 1989, UofL initiated the summer Prematriculation Program which includes students from racial and ethnic groups underrepresented in medicine, medically underserved counties, non-traditional age groups, economically disadvantaged settings, and other disadvantaged backgrounds. The goal is to increase the likelihood of success in medical school.
Responding to Representative Meeks question regarding how many students enrolled in the entrance programs are Kentucky residents, Dr. Jones said AHEC and PEPP consist of only Kentucky students. She said the SMDEP is encouraged to enroll 50 percent of Kentucky resident students, but has 35 percent.
Dr. Jones said 437 Kentucky students applied for medical school in the fall of 2012, and 427 were accepted. She also noted that 2,678 out-of-state students applied and 2,624 were accepted into the UofL medical school for the fall of 2012. Minority enrollments have remained fairly stable with 8 out of 23 Kentucky applicants being accepted in 2012. Minority applications are increasing for out-of-state students with 13 of 200 applications being accepted in 2012. She added that 40 rural student applications were received in 2012, and 15 were accepted.
Responding to a question from Representative Meeks regarding the decreasing numbers of African American students that are successful, Dr. Wiegman said UofL has been successful in increasing minority applicants. He noted some minority students have been very competitive nationally and received good scholarships. He noted UofL is losing minority students because of a lack of scholarship money. UofL pays 50 percent tuition for an out-state-student minority scholarship, and 60 percent for an in-state scholarship, but the school used to pay 100 percent of the tuition for both.
Responding to a question from Representative Rollins about student debt, Dr. Jones said UofL pays the entire cost of the prematriculation program. Representative Rollins is concerned about the enormous student debt of students who do not finish and graduate from medical school.
Representative Riner said he feels the scholarship money should be used for minority Kentucky students, and not minority out-of-state students. Dr. Weigman said it has to do with critical mass of students. He said the state of Kentucky has a lower percentage of minority students. As a result, UofL has had a stronger program by using a national pool of students. However, the minority graduation rate was 64 percent prior to the creation of the Office of Minority and Rural Affairs in 1984. The graduation rate is now 90 percent for minority students. He added that the MED program is comprised of 75 to 80 percent African American students. The minority statistics do not include Asian students.
University of Kentucky College of Medicine
Carol Elam, Ed.D., Associate Dean for Admissions and Institutional Advancement, University of Kentucky (UK), said 41 percent of the pool of applicants for the UK College of Medicine (UKCOM) is female. She said there is also a 41 percent matriculation rate for female medical students. In 2003, the average female applicant pool nationally was 50 percent and has since dropped to 47 percent, while Kentucky’s has held constant at 41 percent.
Dr. Elam noted 55 percent of the residency students are from Appalachian, rural, and urban counties in Kentucky. She said UKCOM implemented a guaranteed tuition program in 2007 to offset rising tuition costs. This guarantees each entering class that tuition will remain constant for the four years they are enrolled in medical school. She noted this approach required a 25 percent matriculation rate of out-of-state students to offset the costs of the program.
Dr. Elam said admission to the UKCOM continues to be competitive with more than 2,000 applicants from across the Commonwealth and nation applying annually for 118 spots in each class. Approximately 96 percent of all medical students receive some form of financial aid and 45 percent benefit from scholarship awards. Typically, 65 percent of UKCOM graduates live in Kentucky.
Dr. Elam noted that 11 percent of students who applied to UKCOM identified themselves as disadvantaged. She said only two percent of applicants were Hispanic, and this statistic could change in the near future. The black applicants, which includes non United States citizens, is typically around five percent, which is very small. The Asian applicant pool was 19 percent. There were 430 Kentucky applicants and 118 matriculated students.
Dr. Elam said the MCAT applicant score was 31.9. She noted the average MCAT score for black applicants was 23.6 out of 126 applications. For the 27 black Kentucky resident applicants, the average MCAT score was 24.2, of which 17 were accepted. Six of those were matriculated with an average MCAT of 28.7. She noted that black Kentucky students with outstanding MCAT scores can attend Ivy League schools, and UK recruited and lost two of those students last year.
Dr. Elam explained the various recruiting activities. She said the program’s goal is to always attract more under-represented minorities to the university. This includes African Americans, Hispanics, and students from eastern Kentucky. She said the Rural Physician Leadership Program (RPLP) is unique to UK and was developed in response to growing health care needs evident in rural areas of Kentucky and the rest of the nation. She noted Morehead State University will accept up to 10 students per year.
Emery Wilson, M.D., Dean Emeritus, UK, discussed the physician shortage in Kentucky and nationwide. He noted Kentucky needs an additional 2,200 physicians by 2025. He said the average debt for a Kentucky medical school student is $150,000. The rising cost of tuition continues to eliminate minorities and rural students from applying.
University of Pikeville
Boyd R. Buser, D.O., FACOFP, Vice President for Health Affairs and Dean, Kentucky College of Osteopathic Medicine (KYCOM), University of Pikeville, said there are 53 percent males enrolled in the program and 47 percent female students. Three percent of those are black males, and four percent are black females. He noted the program recently increased enrollment from 80 entering students to 135 in the fall of 2012 coincident with the opening of the medical education building on campus.
Dr. Buser said the median income of KYCOM students in the fall of 2012 was $4,196. The number of students living in poverty was 68.5 percent, and living near-poverty was 13.4 percent.
Dr. Buser said students who are trained in rural areas are more likely to stay and practice in rural areas. A 2010 analysis of KYCOM graduate practice data by the National Center for the Analysis of Healthcare found that 62 percent of graduates practice in Appalachia, 32 percent practice in Kentucky, 44 percent practice in underserved areas, 38 percent practice in rural areas, and 41 percent practice within 120 miles of KYCOM.
Dr. Buser said 45 percent of graduates in 2012 were women, and 5 percent were ethnic minorities. He noted 73 percent of the graduates are entering primary care residencies. According to the U.S. News & World Report survey, the University of Pikeville Medical School is second in the nation in graduating osteopathic physicians (D.O.s) and allopathic physicians (M.D.s). It is also nationally ranked in the number of graduates entering primary care residency programs. He said the university is ranked the fifth most affordable medical school in the United States.
Dr. Buser said rising student debt is a continuing concern of the university. Another concern is the differential pay between primary care specialties and other sub-specialties, which creates a powerful disincentive to enter into primary care residency programs.
Dr. Buser said the PEPP program serves 40 to 50 students a year. It is designed for tenth and eleventh grade students to help increase their aspirations for healthcare careers. The University of Pikeville Medical School awards $1-2 million in osteopathic scholarships a year. He noted recipients must provide one year of service in Kentucky for each year the scholarship is awarded.
Responding to a question from Representative Meeks, Dr. Buser did not know the number of students receiving scholarship money, but will find the data and report it to the subcommittee.
With no further business before the committee, the meeting adjourned at 12:10 p.m.